At the beginning of the development of human society, under the primitive social system, people provided themselves with food through gathering and hunting. This type of activity allowed primitive man to survive, but it required enormous labor, not guaranteeing the stability of the menu and being a limiting factor in development. All this was the reason that man began to engage in farming and domestication of wild animals, which we will talk about today, in particular the cow. Primitive people began to select less aggressive, quiet animals for reproduction. Many animals were able to feed not only their offspring, but also to compensate for the need for milk of the children of those who protected and fed them.
This is how the first breeders appeared on earth. It was at this point that the evolution of pets began to work against them. The more man interfered with nature, selecting and cultivating those qualities that were beneficial to him-indicators of milk production, precocity, fertility - the more the genetic code formed by millions of years of evolution changed. The resistance of the body became lower, the ability to protect itself was lost, mobility decreased, and all the energy released as a result was stored as a reserve in the form of fat, which allowed to compensate for the lack of energy when there was a shortage of it.
Humanity did not stand still. Directly proportional to the increase in yields and productivity in cattle breeding, the number of people also increased. Science developed rapidly, and society became more civilized. Breeders, not paying attention to the immune system, the General state of the body of cows, achieved increasingly high results, and to combat the problems that arise in this case, involved vaccines, medicines, changed diets and conditions of detention.
At some point, the productivity of animals reached a level at which the body's physiological reserves ran out, and at the first manifestation of stress, an energy imbalance began to occur, a violation of lipid metabolism. The imbalance between incoming and outgoing energy has caused diseases such as ketosis, the disease of fat mobilization.
We got acquainted with the history of these diseases, which are a scourge for highly productive cows. Now I suggest that you study the cause of this problem and try to solve it.
First, let's determine which animals are at risk for these diseases. First of all, these are breeds of dairy cows: Galstino-Frisian, black-and-white, Jersey, Angler, Kholmogorskaya and Red-steppe. Representatives of these breeds have a well-developed mammary gland (udder), in which there is a complex physiological process - the secretion of milk. Everyone knows that for the formation of 1 liter of milk, 400 to 600 liters of blood must pass through the udder. By comparing how the composition of milk differs from the composition of blood, you can imagine what complex processes occur in the udder and understand how energy-consuming this process is. If we consider that the production of milk (colostrum) before calving is slow, and after calving the rate of secretion should increase several times, then the consumption of the product responsible for the energy exchange of the body, glycogen, will increase proportionally. At the same time, its synthesis increases slightly and this is when the body has not yet recovered from calving and requires additional energy costs to be mobilized for this purpose.
Glycogen stores in the body are deposited in the liver and interstitial space. Given that high milk productivity is inherent in animals with a low index of muscle mass, the volume of which does not always allow you to make the necessary reserve to compensate for the deficit of glycogen synthesized in the new body period, the body receives a signal to mobilize the deposited fat as an energy source.
And at the moment when it seemed that the problem was solved, there is a consequence. The use of deposited fat is provided by nature and occurs in all organisms. Normally, the physiological process is imperceptible and does not bring anything but benefits, but as soon as the balance of incoming and used energy is disturbed in the direction of used and exceeds the norm, the mobilization of fat causes serious complications. With forced fat breakdown, the level of long-chain fatty acids increases and is deposited as fat cells in the liver, causing its degeneration, dysfunction, and fat mobilization disease.
If the causes of the disease are not eliminated at this stage of development, this will lead to more harmful consequences. The liver loses the ability to utilize fatty acids, unable to control the level of propionate, as a result, the amount of under-oxidized fat-ketones increases. At this stage, the disease of fat mobilization turns into ketosis. The consequences of the above-mentioned diseases are:
- depression of immunity;
- reduced productivity;
- diseases of the extremities of the reproductive organs;
- change in PH, gastrointestinal tract;
- violation of concentration, recolonization of the microflora of the scar;
- violation of redox processes;
- weight loss.
So, we have analyzed the causes of energy problems of highly productive cows and must determine how to solve them.
The most important factor in solving these problems is the organization of a full-fledged balanced feeding. Diets should be made taking into account both the needs of the body and its ability to process and assimilate the nutrients that come with the feed.
Since the potential of the digestive tract is not unlimited, it is often not able to use typical feed without harm to the body, to cover the energy needs of highly productive cows. In practice, to increase the energy content in the diet, the amount of concentrated feed is often increased, bringing in some cases up to 50-60% of the diet. Pursuing a good goal, but not taking into account the physiological abilities of the body, thereby creating prerequisites for metabolic disorders, the development of ketoses and acidosis.
It would seem that the circle has closed. After all, along with increasing productivity, the need for energy increases, and the body's potential is almost exhausted and can not compensate for the resulting imbalance during the period of maximum milk production. But a thorough study of animal physiology and, in particular, a complete tracking of the energy exchange cycle, starting with the receipt of carbohydrates in the rumen, their splitting into acetic, propionic and butyric acids to gluconeogenesis and the Krebs cycle, allowed the use of alternative sources of highly concentrated energy. These sources include energy supplements and protected fats. Protected vegetable fats are the most concentrated source of energy. But their use in the transit period prevents the production of insulin and contributes to the accumulation of ketone bodies, and this can lead to ketosis.
Protected fat as an energy source is advisable to use when the threat of ketosis will be minimal from 50-60 days after calving. In addition, the use of fat leads to a change in the pH of the uterus in the direction of alkaline, which negatively affects fertility. But the ability of fat to increase the level of cholesterol in the blood of cows, leads to an increase in the amount of estrogen and progesterone, which has a positive effect on the development of yellow bodies, as well as on the nutrition of embryos. This once again proves the feasibility of using protected fats after fruitful insemination.
The modern market offers dry and liquid feed additives of energy character based on polyatomic alcohols and organic acids. Application practice has shown that liquid solutions are more effective. This is due to the fact that the dry energy drink is difficult to mix evenly with the feed due to its small volume, and this creates certain difficulties in observing the dosage for group maintenance of animals. In addition, not every sick animal takes food or it may have a reduced appetite, so there will be a need to choose additional treatment. Passing through the digestive tract from the moment of ingestion and until dissolution occurs, they act irritatingly on the mucosa, causing its inflammation.
When using the drug in liquid form, these problems do not occur. An animal that refuses to feed continues to drink water, which contains a liquid energy drink. Dosing of energy in liquid form occurs automatically through the batcher machine. If it is impossible to install the batcher machine, the drug enters the animal's body with food, by mixing it in a feed mixer (mixer), or by irrigating the feed that is on the feed table. The advantage of liquid preparations is that in a mixture with water, the concentration of active substances does not have an irritating effect on the esophagus and scar, and when it enters the pre-ventricles, it does not require dissolution, but it is immediately absorbed into the blood.
On the example of one of these drugs of domestic production, which is currently the leader in the energy market in Russia, we will analyze these advantages in more detail. This drug is DKB -
a vitamin and mineral complex based on energy base. Brought to perfection, the drug is used for the prevention and treatment of diseases such as ketosis, diseases of fat mobilization, acidosis. The optimized proportions of the components included in its composition allow you to track the action of the DCB in the shortest possible time. The use of the drug for prophylactic purposes is recommended for groups of late dead wood in the transit period 15-20 days before calving.
It allows you to accumulate the necessary supply of glycogen in the body of the cow and ensure proper nutrition of the fetus. Calving, during which the body requires a huge amount of energy, goes smoothly. After calving, the drug is used for 40-50 days. Constant use of concentrated energy allows you to maintain its balance in the body, without resorting to excessive use of deposited fat.
Redox processes are in accordance with the physiological norm. The liver is not overloaded, and hepato-protectors, which are part of the DKB, allow you to start the regeneration process in it, restoring its damaged areas, and prevent rebirth. The level of ketone bodies in the body is maintained within the limits of those norms that are determined by nature. All these qualities of DKB allow you to see the advantages from the first days of application, but this was not enough for developers.
It is generally accepted that the absence or deficiency of one vitamin in the body can lead to a number of serious diseases. But full absorption of vitamins occurs only in the presence of certain minerals. The DKB contains a vitamin and mineral complex that makes up for the lack of vitamins. The use of the drug as part of the diet-feeding, allows the cow's body to use the deposited fat for its intended purpose in the norms determined by physiology. Thus, in the cow's body, the energy balance is maintained, the body's need for vitamins and minerals is met, thereby preserving the health of the cow. The animal becomes more resistant to stress, ready to resist various diseases.
Solving the problems of energy deficit in the body of highly productive cows with the help of DKB has a positive effect on milk yield. A healthy animal uses the full potential of milk productivity, allowing the reserves to open up, without weakening the body. If we consider the drug DKB from the point of view of Economics, the feasibility of its use consists of the following factors:
- preserving the health of cows, getting strong viable offspring;
- reducing the cost of veterinary medicines necessary for the treatment of a number of diseases that affect a weakened body with a lack of energy – fat mobilization syndrome, acidosis, ketosis, retention of the afterbirth, endometritis, mastitis, limb diseases that occur due to reduced immunity;
- exclusion of technological disposal of cows for the above diseases;
- the possibility of increasing milk yield by stimulating redox processes occurring in the body, and the ability to use the deposited fat for its intended purpose.
These are just a few factors, but they can reduce the cost of production and increase the profitability of milk production, while preserving the health of cows.
In order to track the effectiveness of the drug DKB does not require long-term use. Disclosure of its action occurs within two or three weeks and allows you to use a small amount for this purpose, incurring minimal costs.
Progress does not stand still. Along with it, dairy farming is also moving forward, increasing its indicators. This process cannot be stopped or reversed. The modern market will not allow this. In this regard, there will be more and more problems of exchange energy deficit.
Alternative sources of energy, such as DCB, will help solve the problem of restoring the energy balance. The article was written by order of the company "T. D. Hermes" LLC for the feed additive of the Don feed balance trademark (certificate no. 626790 dated 17.08.2017)
Popov, V. A., Senchenko, Dmitry Medvedev.
Copying is carried out with the written permission of the author of the article.